Justice Minister David Ford called for an immediate disciplinary investigation into the matter.
Lowongan Kerja - Sean Gerard Cahill was released after appearing at Laganside Courts on 24 November.
Cahill failed to turn up at Lisburn Magistrates' Court on Tuesday. He is the third prisoner released by mistake in two months. - Job Vacancy
Cahill was convicted and sentenced to one month imprisonment on a charge of aggravated vehicle-taking.
He was released at that point due to the time that he had spent on remand awaiting trial.
Rather than being released, Cahill should have been returned to custody pending a further hearing scheduled for Tuesday 30 November.
The second hearing was in relation to charges of robbery, possession of an offensive weapon and taking a vehicle without the owner's consent.
The error came to light when Cahill did not appear at Lisburn Magistrates' Court on Tuesday morning.
David Ford said: "I have demanded that a disciplinary investigation be launched immediately into this most serious matter.
"It is vital that we urgently find out why this has happened, and if individuals are to blame I will move swiftly to take the appropriate action.
"This is the third time in a matter of months that a prisoner has been released in error and I share the public anger that will naturally follow this latest serious incident."
The justice minister will receive a fuller detailed briefing from officials on Wednesday morning.